Noah’s Flood Local or Global?

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Evidences for Flood being global include:
1-3. Biblical Old & New Testament & Apocrypha evidence
4. Epic of Gilgamesh evidence
5. World mythological evidences of nations around the world
6. Ancient Egyptian evidences
7. Atlantis Account.
8. Physical evidence of enough water & where waters went
9. Physical evidence of how fit all animals in ark
10-13. Geological evidences, ice ages, linguistics evidence, finding the Ark/Ararat.
Any real scholar’s solution must synthesize all evidences from the more than one relevant fields/disciplines (multidisciplinary/generalist). We deal with most of these below, except that we don’t yet have much-enough geological evidences (not that there is a lack, other books provide tons of possible evidences, but we haven’t personally been able to collate a comprehensive enough case yet in our limited situation).

Biblical Old Testament evidences:

(Please especially note the words “all”, “every”, “whole”, “filled”, “world”, “earth”, “greatly”, “exceedingly”, “only”, “few”, etc in the below quoted verses.)

– It is thought by some scholars that verses in Genesis 1-2, 6-9, and 10-11 imply that there was one landmass until the time of the Flood or time of Peleg or Babel. If there was only one land mass then the flood is more likely to have effected all of the land mass. (Genesis mentions at least 4 or 5 large lands of the preflood world (Havilah, Cush, Asshur, Nod, Eden). The Pseudepigrapha has Noah allocating his 3 sons 3 quarters of the post-Flood Earth and leaving quarter unallocated.)

– If the flood was only regional/local then why did Noah not just shift instead of building a massive ark?
Why would God need to renew the known earth by flood & ark when they could just have shifted to uninhabited earth & destroyed the bad part of the earth?
There would have been no need for such an “heightened … drama” and “ample time warning” for Noah’s building an Ark “in the middle of a plain”.

– Why did they have to take 2 or 7 of every kind of land/air animal?
“I will destroy man whom I have created from the surface of the ground; man, along with animals (behema), creeping things (remes), and birds (op) of the sky; for I am sorry that I have made them.” (Gen 6:5-7.)
“to destroy all flesh (basar) having the breath of life from under the sky. Everything that is in the earth will die.” (Gen 6:17.)
“Of every living thing (hayah) of all flesh, you shall bring 2 of every sort into the ship, to keep them alive with you. They shall be male & female. Of the birds after their kind, of the livestock after their kind, of every creeping thing (remes) of the ground after its kind, 2 of every sort shall come to you, to keep them alive. Take with you of all food that is eaten” (Gen 6:19-21.)
“You shall take 7 pairs of every clean animal with you, the male & his female. Of the animals that are not clean, take 2, the male & his female. Also of the birds of the sky, seven and seven, male and female, to keep seed alive on the surface of all the earth. Every living thing (hayah?) that I have made, I will destroy from the surface of the ground.” (Gen 7:2-4.)
“Clean animals, animals that are not clean, birds, and everything that creeps (remes) on the ground went by pairs to Noah into the ship, male and female” (Gen 7:8-9.)
“they, and every animal/beast (behema?) after its kind, all the livestock/cattle (behema) after their kind, every creeping thing that creeps (remes) on the earth after its kind, and every bird after its kind, every bird (op/sippor) of every sort. They went to Noah into the ship, by pairs of all flesh (basar) with the breath of life in them. Those who went in, went in male and female of all flesh….” (Gen 7:14-16.)
“All flesh died that moved on the earth, including birds (op), livestock/cattle (behema), animals, every creeping thing that creeps (remes) on the earth, and every man. All in whose nostrils was the breath of the spirit of life, of all that was on the dry land, died. Every living thing (hayah?) was destroyed that was on the surface of the ground, including man, livestock/cattle (behema), creeping things (remes), and birds (op) of the sky. They were destroyed from the earth. Only Noah was left, and those who were with him in the ship.” (Gen 7:21-24.)
(“God remembered Noah, all the animals, and all the livestock that were with him in the ship” Gen 8:1.)
“Bring forth with you every living thing (hayah) that is with you of all flesh (basar), including birds (op), livestock (behema), and every creeping thing that creeps (remes) on the earth, that they may breed abundantly in the earth, and be fruitful, and multiply on the earth.” (Gen 8:17.)
“Every animal (behema?), every creeping thing (remes), and every bird (op), whatever moves on the earth, after their families, went out of the ship. … and took of every clean animal, and of every clean bird (op), and offered burnt offerings on the altar.” (Gen 8:19-20.)
“… neither will I ever again strike everything living (hayah), as I have done.” (Gen 8:21.)
“The fear of you and the dread of you will be on every animal/beast (behema?) of the earth, and on every bird (op) of the sky. Everything that the ground teems with, and all the fish of the sea are delivered into your hand. Every moving thing that lives will be food for you. As the green herb, I have given everything to you. At the hand of every animal I will require it.” (Gen 9:2-5.)
“and with every living creature that is with you: the birds (op), the livestock/cattle (behema?), and every animal/beast (behema?) of the earth with you, …, even every animal of the earth.” “all flesh (basar) will not be cut off any more by the waters of the flood” “… and every living creature (hayah) that is with you….” (Gen 9:10-12. Sirach 44:17-18.)
“I will remember my covenant, which is between me and you and every living creature of all flesh, and the waters will no more become a flood to destroy all flesh. … that I may remember the everlasting covenant between God and every living creature (hayah) of all flesh (basar) that is on the earth. This is the token of the covenant which I have established between me and all flesh that is on the earth.” (Gen 9:15-17.)
It is suggested by some scholars that it took Noah upto 120 years to collect all kinds and prepare the ark.
Why did God also wipe out animals too? Why were some “unclean”? It is suggested that there was also mixing between the angels and animals, and humans and animals as well as between the angels and humans.

– “all the fountains of the great deep were burst open, and the sky’s windows were opened.” (Gen 7:11.) “The deep’s fountains and the sky’s windows were also stopped, and the rain from the sky was restrained.” (Gen 8:2.)

– Some have pointed out that the word for earth/land is different (adamah vs eretz?) The answer to this might be that man is made from dust, and so the ark and its contents were a remaining part of the earth not wiped-out, and so it was not totally all the earth?

– The Flood is said to have covered “all the high mountains” “under the whole sky/heavens, and even if this were only local/regional the waters would be pretty high in relation to other areas of the world too. (Gen 6:17, 7:19-20 & 8:4-5.)

– The waters prevailed on the earth 150 days” (Gen 7:21-24.)
– “The waters prevailed, and increased greatly on the earth; …. The waters prevailed exceedingly on the earth.” (Gen 7:18-19.)

– 40 days and (40) nights = around the world in 80 days?

– God’s rainbow promise to never destroy/Flood the world/earth again was a lie if the flood was only local/regional. (Gen 9:11-13.)
“For this is (as) the waters of Noah to me; for as I have sworn that the waters of Noah shall no more go over the earth, ….” Isaiah 54:9.

– “men began to multiply on the surface of the ground” (Gen 6:1.)
“My Spirit will not strive with man (adam) forever, because he also is flesh; yet will his days be 120 years.” (Gen 6:3.)
“The Nephilim were in the earth in those days” (Gen 6:4.)
“Yahweh saw that the wickedness of man (adam) was great in the earth. Yahweh was sorry that he had made man on the earth….” “I will destroy man whom I have created from the *surface* of the ground; man, along with animals, creeping things, and birds of the sky; for I am sorry that I have made them.” (Gen 6:5-7.)
“The *earth* was corrupt before God, and the earth was *filled* with violence. God saw the earth, and saw that it was corrupt, for *all* flesh (basar) had corrupted their way on the earth.” “The end of all flesh has come before me, for the earth is filled with violence through them. Behold, I will destroy them with the earth.” (Gen 6:11-13.)
(“Anyone (including animals) exposed to depravity at close range for a long enough time will be affected—and infected—by it. …. God’s judgment never goes beyond the boundaries of sin’s damage….” This doesn’t necessarily mean Yhwh was trying to stop whole planet being infected as the source says but to us evidently fits with the whole earth being infected.)
– Noah was “perfect in his generations” which some scholars say refers to not being genealogically/geneticly corrupted with fallen angelic blood.
“Noah was a righteous man, blameless among the people of his *time*.” (Gen 6:9.)
“for I have seen your righteousness before me in this *generation*.” (Gen 7:1.)

– “All flesh (basar) died that moved on the earth, …, and every man (adam/nasha/aish?) All in whose nostrils was the breath of the spirit of life (nephesh), of all that was on the dry land, died. Every living thing was destroyed that was on the surface of the ground, including man, …. They were destroyed from the earth. Only Noah was left, and those who were with him in the ship.” (Gen 7:21-24.)
– Only “7 + 1”, or “8” or “4 x 2” human souls were in the Ark according to some Bible books. (1 Peter 3:20-21; 2 Peter 2:5.)
– Psychological analysis of Genesis 9 suggested that Noah got drunk because he was depressed at all his past life world being gone forever. This makes no/less sense with only a local flood.
– Why did Ham castrate Noah if there were not the only 8 people left in the world? (Jewish tradition is that Ham castrated Noah, which seems to be confirmed in other mythologies like for example Kronos castrating Uranus. Some claim he just uncovered his father, or sodomised him, or had affair with his wife, but Noah’s curse was pretty hefty if it was only for some of these.)
– “This is the history of the *generations* of Noah.” (Gen 6:9.)
“God blessed Noah and his sons, and said to them, “Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth.” (Gen 9:1.)
“At the hand of man, even at the hand of every man’s (adam?) brother, I will require the life of man.” (Gen 9:2-5)
“Be fruitful and multiply. Bring forth abundantly in the earth, and multiply in it.” (Gen 9:7.)
“These three were the sons of Noah, and from these, the whole earth was populated.” Gen 9:19.
“Of these were the nations divided in the earth after the flood” Genesis 10:32. Doesn’t make sense with a local flood.
Genesis 10-11 implies that all post-Flood humanity had one language (or “language”)?
The bible only records descendants of Shem, Ham and Japheth, it doesn’t record any further about other lines of Adam, Cain, Abel, Seth.
Extra-biblical traditions of Cainites and giant Og of Bashan surviving the flood may really relate to the wives/mothers of Noah’s sons. The Og of Bashan tradition might really only be from the Classical Ogyges.

– There are evidence that the Humans and fallen angels or Watchers of preflood world had equal or higher abilities & technological civilisation to us. So they may have had the ability to explore the whole earth, and to escape elsewhere above or below if the flood had only been local/regional.

– The mention of summer & winter, and cold & heat at the end of the Flood might imply that there was an axial tilt in the Flood? (Genesis 8:22.) It might also imply that the ice age(s) is/are post-flood.

– “the flood” is also used as a name for the river Euphrates in a sense of passing over and completely cut-off (like baptism).

Biblical New Testament evidences:
“As the days of Noah were, so will be the coming of the Son of Man. For as in those days which were before the flood they were eating and drinking, marrying and giving in marriage, until the day that Noah entered into the ark, and they didn’t know until the flood came, and took them all away, so will be the coming of the Son of Man.” Matthew 24:37-39.
“As it happened in the days of Noah, even so will it be also in the days of the Son of Man. They ate, they drank, they married, they were given in marriage, until the day that Noah entered into the ark, and the flood came, and destroyed them all.” Luke 17:26-27.
“By faith, Noah, being warned about things not yet seen, moved with godly fear, prepared an ark for the saving of his house, through which he condemned the world, and became heir of the righteousness which is according to faith.” Hebrews 11:7.
“In it, few, that is, eight souls, were saved through water. This is a symbol of baptism” 1 Peter 3:20-21.
“and didn’t spare the ancient world, but preserved Noah with seven others, a preacher of righteousness, when he brought a flood on the world of the ungodly” 2 Peter 2:5. Peter calls the pre-Flood world the old *World*? (“The word “world” (Greek kosmos) can mean the whole universe, the whole planet Earth, the whole of humanity, or a portion of Earth.”) Critics claiming that the words “of that time” seem to support regional flood does not seem very strong to me.

“And every people walked after their own will, and did wonderful
things before thee, and despised thy commandments.
And again in process of time thou broughtest the flood upon
those that dwelt in the world, and destroyedst them.
And it came to pass in every of them, that as death was to Adam,
so was the flood to these.” 2 Esdras 3:8-10.
“For whose cause the earth being drowned with the flood,
wisdom again preserved it, and directed the course of the
righteous in a piece of wood of small value.” Wisdom 10:4.
“Noah was found perfect and righteous; in the time of wrath he
was taken in exchange (for the world;) therefore was he left as
a remnant unto the earth, when the flood came. An everlasting covenant was made with him, that all flesh should perish no more by the flood.” Sirach 44:17-18.

Evidences from Epic of Gilgamesh:

“would that a lion/wolf/famine/pestilence have ravaged the world rather than the flood”; “all living creatures”; “the world teemed, the people multiplied, the world bellowed like a wild bull, and the great god was aroused by the clamour”; “the uproar of mankind is intolerable”; “even the gods were terrified and fled to the highest heaven”; “all mankind was turned to clay”; “the great gods of heaven and of hell wept”; Ziusdura translated to Dilmun “home in the faraway” / “in the distance, at the mouth of the rivers”; “has anyof these mortals escaped? not one was to have survived”.

The difference of 6/7 days flood of Gilgamesh and the 40/150/310 days one of Noah might be explained by either: Babylonian one conflates flood with the creation week? God/Noah waited 7 days in the Genesis account? The Babylonian account might conflate Noah’s flood with one of the later early Sumerian floods? 40/42 is 6 x 7?

Evidences from other nations traditions/myths/legends/memories:

– The Flood is a universal/global tradition found in many nations around the world. Even small details are similar such as number of saved persons, sending out of the dove/raven/bird.

Norse version: Ymir slain, blood floods world. Ship Naglfar. Noatun? (Ref: E Sykes.)
Norse & Celtic/Arthurian ship burials. “giraffe on a ship”/”camel on ship” (bronze age rock scribings, sw Sweden, ref Spanuth, though it is now thought it might be a man waving a battle axe rather than a “giraffe/camel”)?
Celtic: Nemed settled Eire after flood? Boann linked with Flood/overflowing of Boyne. Flood of Bith & Birren. “A woman had a magic cask which when opened flowed for so long that the water covered the earth”. Druids tell of 2 catastrophes – fire and water/flood. Dwyvan & Dwybach escape overflowing of lake Llyon-Llion caused by Addanc/Avanc/Abac. Lyonesse.
“The Celtic myth of creation refers to the appearance of a giant serpent who emerges from the sea and fertiles the ovum of the cosmos. The movements of the monster cause the world to be flooded leaving only a small parcel of land uncovered by the deluge”. (Refs: Sykes, Hislop.)
Baltic: Flood: 3 versions of Flood all connected with Pramziwas/Pramzimas.
Roman version: Saturnia & Janicula/Janiculum 2 cities on either side of flood before Rome. Some think Janus’ 2 faces relate to pre & post flood Noah.

Greek: Zeus sends flood, Deucalion & Pyrrha escape in ark, lands on mt Parnassus; Philemon & Baucis saved from Flood; Ogyges sought salvation from flood in mountains/heights; flood/rain erosion; Atlantis. Flood of Phoroneus. Flood of Megarus? Flood forced Dardanus to leave Samothrace on a raft. Boat in Minoan “epiphany” seal? Water/Ocean(us) is the 1st principle/source of all in philosophy of Thales. Flood waters recede when Triton blows conch.
The Phoenix “lived in a mountainous land that escaped the ravages of the Flood”.
The Atlantis Account says Greeks had only tradition of one great flood.

Phoenician version: Baal vs Yamm (sea/river). El dwells at Sad-El at source of rivers.
“flood waters drained away through orfice at Bambyce/Membij” (Carchemish/Jerablus).
Hebrew/Biblical: Great Flood of Noah. Og of Bashan escaped the Flood by perching on top of the Ark. Babel built as a refuge in case of another flood. Sammael’s flood in Genesis 1?
“Targum Pseudo-Jonathan even says the sons of the giants placed their children into the springs of the abyss to try to plug it up!”
Arab version: Adites drowned in 2nd flood.

2 world ages of Capricorn/Aquarius/water/ice and Cancer/Leo/fire in Babylonian (Berosus), Egyptian and Druid and Eddaic and Atlantis Account and Bible imply 2 major global events.

Babylonian: Flood of Ziusudra/Utnapishtim/Atrahasis (Epic of Gilgamesh). Apsu. Tiamat/Omoroka. Flood in Sumerian king list. Fishmen/Amphibians/Annedoti (Oannes etc)?
Abubu “flood personified, name of a winged monster”.
Uruk vase picture of Noah & wife & son stocking up ark with provisions/supplies, with (part of) ark represented by ring-post symbol (ref Fasold)?

Iranian version: Yima warned of flood by Ahura Mazda, builds a ‘var’ cave refuge in mountains. “the earth had to be cleaned by a flood, and the raindrops were as large as a bulls head”. (Refs: E Sykes.)
Indian version: Matsya forewarns Manu Vaivasvata of flood. Varuna’s house of clay. Aughaja “flood”. Narayana sailing the primeval ocean on a banana leaf.
Indus Valley seals: boat Naveya of Yi? (Ref B Hrozny.)

Samoyed versions: Num(itorem) sent birds to explore watery chaos at beginning of world, made land from mud that one of them brought back in its beak. “Num(itorem) saved the people from starvation after the flood by growing crops.” (Ref: A Cotterell.)

Thai version: flood water like pesi “rice water”. (Ref: F Comte.)
Miao/China: “told of how a brother and sister had escaped the flood waters in a wooden drum and how all post flood humanity was descended from them.” “The first two human beings, a brother and sister, supposedly appeared after “the earth was flooded by the ocean”. Patriarch Nuah.
Chinese version: Kungkung caused deluge by knocking down pillars or battering heavenly bamboo. “Yu contains the waters of deluge”. Pictograph/ideograph for boat = vessel + 8 + mouth; glyph for flood = water + total; glyph for total = 8 + united + earth. “Chinese man Nu-wah on boat landed on mountain”?
Taiwan: Peiroun warned of deluge (flood of Maurigosima).
“an earthquake caused a great flood”, a brother & sister survive “in a wooden mortar” (Ami).
Japanese version: Izanagi & Izanami fish up Japan islands from ocean.

Papuan: Goga tried to quench stolen firebrand by a downpour…?
Australian Aborigine version: Rainbow Serpent connected with flood/rising sealevels. 2 ancestors of tribe emerged from heap of debris carried by the flood. “first sea-farers”. Someone said that Australia has similar formations to ark-like rock formations in Turkey? (Refs: National Radio, Cotterell.)
Gilbert/Kiribati: “universal darkness followed by a deluge. The deluge was considred of such import that they have a deluge god”.

Irian Jaya inscription: waka nuwi a rata “this is the great boat of Rata” could also read “ark Noah Ararat”?
Micronesian: “Lo(w)a dwelt alone in primeval sea at beginning”.
Maori version: Maui fishes up North island of NZ.
Polynesian: Pele poured out seas around Hawaii.
Tiki floated on the water in a canoe (in the very beginning)?
Nu’u “escaped the flood in a large vessel with a house on top of it”.
“the egg was laid or dropped in the sea by a huge bird flying over the primeval expanse of water”.
Sinking of Mu (Churchward)?

Eskimo: Overpopulation prevented by Sedna who took pleasure in drowning many men; Sedna cast overboard, sank to bottom of sea.
Chiapanese: Votan/Nahua saved on raft at time of deluge (refs RA Anderson, Fitzgerald-Lee).
Algonkian: Manibozho took refuge on mountain when lake overflowed & submerged world.
Huron: Great Frog swallowed all the deluge waters.
Tuleyone Indian: Olle/Coyote caused flood.
Quiche: Hurakan caused deluge.
Aztec/Mesoamerican versions: All humans of world age of Atl destroyed in/ended by deluge. Xelhua escaped deluge by going to top of mountain.
Nata commanded to build ship to save selves from deluge in year ce-calli.
Nichant “destroyed world by fire and water”.
All peoples of 1st world except Coxcox & wife destroyed by flood. Tezpi escaped flood. (RA Anderson.)
Costa Rica: Noncomala flooded the whole earth.
Tupi-Guarani: Irin Mage caused deluge. Tawenduare stamped on ground so hard that that water gushed forth in a flood.
Chibcha/Muyscaya: Chia flooded whole world once.
Muyscas escaped flood that overwhelmed their overseas homeland.
Inca/Peru: Tiahuanaco flooded. Copacati submerged temples beneath lake Titicaca.

Dogon myth: Nommo (son of Amma) may match Noah or Nimrod? “ark land on earth”; 8 nommo(s); 3 nommo(s); “new world”, “amphibious”, “water”, “drink”.

– Some traditions have it that humans almost starved after the flood due to lack of vegetable foods.

– The world egg may be a memory of the Ark, and it might confirm flood was global.

Egyptian evidences:
Some have claimed that there is no flood/deluge in Egyptian tradition. Others have pointed out the contrary. Seeming possible Egyptian references to flood include: “Nu told Ra to flood the earth”? Hathor & Sekhmet wade in human blood, Ra flooded world with beer; Thoth sends flood; Atmu caused waters great deep to overflow & drown everyone; Osiris saved from water; Bennu/Phoenix associated with flood; Hermes sets up 2 columns in Siriadic land one of brick & one of stone to survive fire or flood; ‘inundation’ 1st of 3 seasons; Surid 300 yrs before flood; dyking myths of Ptah and Menes; Atlantis Account; Nun “primeval waters”. Ra’s boat Uaa Nu of cubits 7? Menes connected with ark (ref wikipedia ‘Menes’)? Predynastic boat picture at Gebelein/Naqada similar to Fasold’s Noah’s Ark (even with drogue stones, ref F Raffaele). Naqada 2 pot(tery) “ship theme”?
Sphinx rain marks may be from unstable climate for few hundred years after flood (compare Tepe Gawra houses)?

The Great Flood of Noah is not the same as the Atlantis flood because:
– 40/150/310 days/nights versus 1 day/night.
– Whole world perished in Noah’s flood; only Atlantis did in the Atlantis Account.
– Atlantis was a separate landmass from Old World, whereas the earth was not divided in the bible until the Flood or Babel or Peleg.
– Egyptian priest in Atlantis Account distinguished between the Greeks’ one great flood and “many floods”. The Atlantis event is implied to be the 3rd deluge in the account.
– Atlantis was in Bronze/Brass/Brazen age.
– Atlantis was contemporary with Athens (and Sais?)
– Atlantis is considered to be contemporary with Minoan-Mycenaean proto-Greeks in the Atlantis Account
– Some translations of the Atlantis Account have no mention of rain though some do.
The Egyptian priests seemingly may have conflated the Atlantis “sinking” and the Great Flood though.

Physical data evidences regarding enough water to cover whole earth, and/or where all the water went:

Sceptics have claimed that “If the Flood was global, the water required to cover all high mountains would require more than 4 times the total water resources of the entire Earth.” “The amount of water required to cover the whole Earth up to Mount Everest is 4 to 4.5 times the total water resources of the entire planet (or 8 times the water in all the oceans).” “Even so, the sea level would have increase 120 metres, not enough to cover even the low mountains.” “Furthermore, the additional amount of water required is 60 times larger than what our present atmosphere can offer.” “…the water could not possibly recede to a lower area. The only exits for the floodwaters were either underground or the atmosphere.”

However other scholars/scientists have found these answers:
The bible says all the fountains of the great deep and the floodgates of heaven.

The world’s surface is 7/10ths water versus 3/10ths land.
The average depth of the ocean 12451 ft versus average height of land above sealevel is 2300 ft.
If the surface of the earth was flat the water would stand over 7900 ft or 1.5 mi deep/high.
From various evidences it is thought that the seas were shallower and mountains less high before the flood.
“The Hebrew word shub is particularly clear, meaning returned to its original place or condition.”
There is the Tidal Bulge theory? (The bible possibly implies some sort of tidal wave-like activity in “waters coming and going”?)

There have been worries that water in the ice caps of the arctic regions is enough to significantly raise sealevels. The Antarctica ice cover is … feet/meters/miles high. (Mesopotamian myth says the flood waters are held in a spell in Apsu which is subterranean.)

There are/were large underground and/or undersea rivers of water. The bible says the fountains of the great deep broke up. Some underground caves might have held some of the ancient underground waters?
(“The earth is Yahweh’s, with its fullness; the world, and those who dwell therein. For he has founded it on the seas, and established it on the floods.” Psalm 24:1?)

Pre-Flood Canopy theory?
Some of the waters could have come from extraterrestrial source? The exploded planet between Mars and Jupiter, and/or the planet X beyond Pluto was watery in some scientists opinions (ref Alan Alford after Sitchin and Van Flanderen.) Some of the waters could have been evaporated and lost to space after/since the Flood?

Regarding the contention that Noah couldn’t fit all “species” in the Ark: The ark was the size of a large modern ship, and it had 3 levels.
Biblical ‘(bara_)min’ “kinds” are not necessarily species but can be cross-fertile/viable taxa. Cross-fertility/viability occurs at varying levels between species and order in different animals, and is only barred by different order.
Most species are small. “When the two lists are compared, there are 2 Hebrew words describing creatures that were destroyed in the Flood but not among those preserved on the ark:
sheres: teeming, swarming prolific small animals, all the smaller sea creatures and land animals (as contrasted with birds and beasts); rodents, amphibians, smaller reptiles, flying insects, wriggling water animals
yequm: animals with standing; animals which subsist
While sheres can refer to small mammals, most often it is used for small nonsoulish animals. Yequm can refer to all animals or just those that merely subsist.” (Some say that ‘(bara) min’ may imply “new animals”?)
2 or 7 Dinosaurs could be taken on the Ark for 1 year by either taking eggs or young or dna.

Another criticism has been that “The animals needed different climates for their survival. The ark could not provide such variety.” Modern assertions that the animals and/or conditions were all the same as now/since might be wrong (esp since they believe in “evolution”, “adaptation” “survival of fittest”). Genesis 1 implies one landmass of Pangaea. The bible’s mention of summer & winter, heat & cold at the end of the flood implies differences then. There is also no reason why Noah couldn’t have provided artificial environments in the ark like some modern zoos and refrigerators do. Noah would have taken the best specimens. Landbridges might explain post-flood distribution of animals.
Some think hibernation answers some seeming problems.

Possible Geological evidences:
“The Flood should result in extensive changes in the surface topography of the Earth.” “There is a possibility that the Flood affected the geological data”. Genesis says “destroy/strikedown (naka/maha/sahat) the Earth”.
Do we have deep as possible drill core samples from each continent? We need to check deeper than just virgin soil / bed rock (at sites like Ur & Jericho).
Azoic rain marks? (No rain before flood except “mist/dew” in Genesis 2.)
Oxford Clay?
Sediments cover alot of the world’s land surface?
Grand Canyon? (“Who has cut a channel for the flood water” 38:25?)
Pillow lava in Mount Ararat?
Himalayas have marine remains in them, and salt.
“Everywhere men sent down into the oceans their coring devices they
discovered the ocean depths had suffered a tremendous volcanic
upheaval. … scientists found the catastrophe had struck the ocean depths at the same moment in geological history that it had struck the land masses. On land it had been recognized as a worldwide break in the geological strata. To this upheaval geologists assign the label “Cretaceous” …. …. … no sediment older than Upper Cretaceous time has been found in the ocean basins because there is none there to find”? (Ref Hoeh.)
Mass graves of dinosaurs in Gobi as if sand/water dumped on them?
Traces of humans and civilisation have been found in all periods of the geological timescale as demonstrated in ‘Forbidden Archaeology’ by Cremo & Thompson. Some of these deep down finds may be from preflood world having been buried down deep by the flood.
Some places like the Nile Delta and Babylonian Sealands area where maybe still-wet areas after the Flood that had to be reclaimed?
Whale bones in Michigan?
Andrew Tomas in ‘Atlantis’ mentions animals like reaindeer found in Caucasus/Armenia/Ararat area indicating changes in climate/etc. Some other sources also confirm animals not native to the area found there (eg “remains of a spoted cat not native to the area”). This might be evidence for Noah’s ark landing there?
Linguists have traced the word vine/wine back to somewhere in the Caucasus/Anatolia area.

The Great Flood can not be end of the Great Ice Age(s) of the Pleistocene. No ice is mentioned before Flood in the bible? Ice is mentioned in ‘Job’. It was not only coastal areas that were flooded in the Bible. The Great Flood was from rain / flood gates of heaven and fountains of great deep not from melted ice. The meanings of the names of the Japhethites in Genesis 10 may confirm that the ice age was post-flood (Togarmah and Magog seem to match the Neandtherals of the Ice Age and Cro-Magnons of the last maximum of ice age). The Bible seems to imply that there was no meat eating before Flood, and first mentions hunting after the flood, and so homo erectus meat eaters and Cro-Magnon hunters must be post-flood.
The Great Ice Age(s) of the Pleistocene seemingly may be from post-Flood unstable climate/weather for some centuries after the Flood. It has been suggested that Ice Age(s) “cometh after warming”, and that they are caused by heating from below (not from above). Biblical scholars think that the breaking up of the fountains of the deep in the flood may relate to tectonic disturbance.

There are 3 Noah’s Ark candidates
The Durupinar Ark near Dogubayzit is a good modern-ship-like size and shape for the purpose that the Ark served. Its length matches the biblical ark. Its width can match the biblical ark though it is double the width, perhaps because the measurement was from centre, or the ark was double hulled like Titicaca reed boats, or the ark splayed/flattened out in subsequent tribulations? (Gen 6:15.)
The Suleiman ark candidate of Cornuke.
The Mt Ararat wooden ark.

The Ark is variously said to rest at either Ararat (Bible); Nisir/Nimush (Sumerian); Lubar (Jewish); Masis/Amasis/Baris (Akkadian); Djoudi (Arab/Muslim); Parnassus (Greek).

Ararat: Urartian? Alarodian (Herodotus)? Aratta? Arsareth (Esdras)? Araxes? Aryana-vaejo? Araret (5th/6th dyn, Bey)? Arctic/Antarctic? Aralu/Arali? Agartha/Agarthi? Anatolia? Alalakh? Arzap? a_rata? Aranzah(as)? Eridu (Oannes)? La-ra-ak? Allatu? Arfaday (Moriah)? Uauat? Uluru?

Noah (or Madjnun) : Nahua/Naho (Aztec)? Nubu (Costa Rica)? Nommo (Dogon)? Nu/Nun/Num (Egypt)? Nor Mard (Armenian). Nukwa (Chinese)? Nuah (Miao)? Nuwi (Irian Jaya inscription)? Lo(w)a? Nu’u (Polynesian)? Moa was given birth to in centre of the earth by earth-mother Papa and “may have been ancestor of mankind, roughly equating to Adam” (Polynesian)? Roua “father of the stars” (Polynesian)? Rangi-Nui?

Some of my references/Sources &/or Credits/acknowledgements include:
Bible; Epic of Gilgamesh; Atrahasis epic; Enuma Elish; Smith ‘Chaldean Genesis’; Koran; Nienhuis; Whitcomb & Morris ‘Genesis Flood’; Kofahl; ICR/CSF ‘Answers in Genesis’; Sykes ‘Non-Classical Myth’; Lorrence Collins; David Fasold ‘Discovery of Noah’s Ark’; Ron Wyatt; Travels of Noah; Alford; Zangger ‘Flood From Heaven’; Waddell.


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Author: Jesse Powell