Badon again | Foundations

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After reconsidering many sources and recompiling a list of many location candidates for the battle of Badon, and after going through all these candidates we tentatively think that the best candidates are these 2 from the Notita Digitatum and/or these 5 from the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (if the battle was in the 400s or 500s) :

Braddon & St Martin le Grand (Dover, Kent).Mantuantonis &/or Adurni/Portchester &/or Bitterne/Clausentum (Solent, Hampshire).Wibbandune/”Wimbledon” 568.Woddesbeorg 592.44 yrs of Columba 560.St Martin’s Hwiterne “long before” 560.Eclipse before calends of Martii 538.

(Or if the battle was in the 600s then two more candidates from the ASC are:

Pontesbury 661.Bedwin 675.)

Braddon & St Martin le Grand (Dover, Kent) :
Reasons include:
Names Baddon and Braddon very close/similar. There was also a “bath area” in Roman Dover re Badon’s other name Bath(-hill).
Badon of the AC/WA matches Guinnion of the HB. The 8 of 9 HB battle sites match 8 of the 9 SS forts of the ND all in order, which Guinnion (5th) matching Dover (6th).
The name of St Martin le Grand could relate to Arthur’s battles &/or his greatest battle. (Martin matches war god Mars.)

Mantuantonis &/or Adurni/Portchester &/or Bitterne/Clausentum (Solent, Hampshire).
Reasons include:
The 8 of 9 HB battle sites match 8 of the 9 SS forts of the ND all in order, which Badon (9th) matching Adurni/Portchester (9th).
Names Badon & Adurni similar (&/or Bath/Badon and Bitterne similar). Badon hill could match Portsdown hill.
Mantuantonis is similar to Montis/Mons Badonis.
(Solent similar to Badon’s alternative name Solsbury?)

Wibbandune/”Wimbledon” 568.
Reasons include:
Name Wibbandune similar to Badon.
Wibbandune 568 close to Synod of Victory 569 (AC) which may link with battle of Badon?
Arthur could be Aethelbert.
Oslaf at Badon, Oslake at Wibbandune.
Wibbandune 568 close to 44 yrs of Columba 560 (ASC) which might match 44 yrs of Gildas.

Woddesbeorg 592.
Reasons include:
Both great slaughters.
Name Woddesbeorg sort of similar to Badon(byrig) (compare Woden and Vadon).
West Saxon king driven from kingdom like Badon was a British victory.
592 might match 150 yrs prophecy of Gildas & Bede?
Arthur could be Aethelbert.

44 yrs of Columba 560.
Reasons include:
44 yrs of Gildas might match 44 yrs of Columba.
Arthur could be Aethelbert.
Badon is in section 50/56 of the HB of Nennius, which could relate to 560 or to length of Ethelbert’s reign (ASC).

St Martin’s Hwiterne “long before” 560.
Reasons include:
St Martin’s of Hwiterne “white house” could relate to St Martin le Grand of Dover (white chalk cliffs/downs/blocks). The name of St Martin le Grand could relate to Arthur’s battles &/or his greatest battle. (Martin matches war god Mars.) Dover (6th of 9 in th ND) matches Guinnion (5th of 9 in the HB). Guinnion associated with Arthur bearing Cross &/or Mary on shield/shoulder(s) for 1/3 days in the HB & HB VR matches Badon associated with Arthur bearing Cross &/or Mary on shield/shoulder(s) for 1/3 days in the AC/WA.
The “long before” might match time of some of our earlier Arthur candidates like Patrick, Germanus, Ambrosius.

Eclipse before calends of Martii 538.
Reasons include:
538 is close to the “great victory of Arthur on St David’s day 540 or 640”.
Martii could realte to St Martin le Grand which we have said above may link with Arthur’s greatest battle Guinnion &/or Badon, and Martii is linked with war god Mars.
The two ASC entries of Martii 538 and Julius 540 could match the two battle sites Guinnion/Dover (Martin le Grand) and Richborough/city of the legion (St Julius). Badon of the AC/WA matches Guinnion of the HB.
The “eclipse” could relate to a defeat of the Saxons by the Britons seen as something negative/bad/dark.

Pontesbury 661.
Reasons include:
Pontesbury 661 (ASC) close to 2nd Badon 665 (AC/WA), and both are linked with easter.
Pontserbury could match Portchester/Portsdown hill which we have already said above may match Badon.

Bedwin 675.
Reasons include:
Name Bedwin similar to Badon.
Bedwin 675 (ASC) close to 2nd Badon 665 (AC/WA).

Names similar to Badon/Bath in the ASC:
baedo(n) (introduction)
cwaedon (introduction)
abaedon (introduction)
baedon 429/283 (Palladius)
bodianne 430/403 (Patrick)
baedon/baedan 443/425-430/300 (Atilla)
Bieda/Beda 501
Bebbanburh 547
Beranbury 552 (d/r interchange)
Wibbandune/Wimbledon 568 (synod of victory 569)
Biedcanforda/Bedford 571
Bath/Badanceaster 577
Woddesbeorg 592
bodiende 604
Beandune/Beamdune/Bampton 614
bodian 616
Bardney/Barnburgh 642
Bradanforda/Afene 652
Bradney 656
Biedanheafde/Bedwin 675
cwaedon 755
baedon 853
baedon 868/869
Baddanbyrig/Badbury 900/901
Bradon 905
Bath 907
Bedanforda/Bedford 918/919/914/915
Badecanwiellon/Bakewell 924/920/910
Bedanforda/Bedford 921/917
Brunandune/Brunanburh/Brumby 937 (close to Nennius & Badon 940)
Bedanforda/Bedford 970/971
Bath/Badan 972/973
Bath 1013
Bath 1087/1088
Bath 1106
Bath 1123
Bath 1130 (Geoffrey bishop of Bath, contemp with Geoff of Monmouth)

(Persons similar to Geoffrey of Monmouth in ASC:
Goiffride (introduction)
Geoffrey bishop of Bath 1130.)

I searched all of the Antonine Intinerary, Peutinger Table, Ravenna Cosmography, Ptolemy, Notitia Digitatum and the only similar name to Gildas’ Badon is:
Adurni/Ardaoneon/Ardaoni (Portchester) and/or Mutuantonis, or else Branodunum (Brancaster), both of which would confirm our Saxon Shore matches theory. Likewise the only match for Agned is Anderelio/Anderitum (Pevensey), or else Aquitaniorum (Brancaster), and the only match for Glein/Gleni is Garieni (Great Yarmouth).
Though if Badon matches Vortimer’s battle nearby Thanet then Badon might be Woodnesborough?

Reference lists:

Versions of the battle site name:
Bado /Baddo / Badus /Badon / Baddon / Faddon / Vadon / Hadonis /Bada /Badonia/Badonic/Badonici/Badonis/Badonicus /Badonbyrig/Baddesdown/Bannesdown /Bath /Bath-hill /Bathonia /Badum Mons /Montis:

Main location candidates considered:
Bebbanburh/Bamburgh 547?
Metcaut (Lindisfarne, HB)?
Wibbandune/Wimbledon 568?*
Braddon/Bredenstone (Dover)?* St Martin le Grand (Dover)?
Bradley?
Pontesbury 661?*
Bedwin/Biedanheafde 675?*
Brunandune/Brunanburh 937?
Abaddon (Apollyon)?
Adonis?
Bleuddyd/Balduc /Bladud /Blaiddud /Baldud /Blandiud (ancient king in HRB)?
Badanceaster/Bathanceaster/Bath (ASC 577)? Bath/Bathonia/Solsbury/Lansdown? Nant Badon (Bristol)? Bannesdown (Bristol)? Caer Odor & Odor Nant y Badd (Brysto)? Avon (Bristol, Wilts)? Bathampton Down (Somerset)?
Bredon Hill?
Bardsey island?
The Wash? Branodunum (Brancaster)?
Breydon water (Great Yarmouth)?
Baden (Germany)?
Badr 624 (Muslim)?
Benedict (shone 482, ascended 509, ASC)?
Mercredesburne(sted) 485?
Dobuni/Boduni?
Boadicea?
Beandune/Bampton (ASC 614)?
Badrig/Patrick/Dunum/Down? Palladius? Banna Venta Burniae / Bannavem Taburniae?
Badarn/Padarn/Paternus of Vannes?
Ysbadadden?
Bran (White Hill, “London”)? Brendan/Brandan?
Baithene (Aedan)? Baetan/Baitan 581/623 (Mac Erca)?
Queen Badda/Baddo 586-589 (Spain)?
Bishop Bawdewyn?
Guinnion (HB)?
Badbury Rings? Cat Gwalloph (HB)?
Halleluyah Victory 429 (Bede)?
Baldulf/Balduph (HRB)?
Mt Damen (HRB)?
Digoll?
Ard-na-Said? Eidyn (PG, Gododdin, Taliesin)? Votadini/Gododdin? Bradwen or Adowyn/Adonwy/Adan (Gododdin)?
Adaon (Taliesin’s son)?
Mona/Anglesey (PG)?
bald (mynydd)?
Rhun baladr bras “thick spear”?
bedydd “baptise”?
Bradwell/Ithancester (Othona)?
Mantuantonis?* Ytene? Adurni (Portchester, Solent) &/or Bitterne/Clausentum?* Arun? Adur? Andhun (Sussex 685)? Cayburn 488? Long Man of Wilmingdon (Windover)?
Agned/Bregion?
Stonehenge/Salisbury? Ambresbury? White Horse of Uffingdon? Dragon’s Hill (508)? Adam’s Grave? Woddesbeorg/Wodnesbyrg 592?* Beranbury 556? Badbury? Baddanbyrig “Badda’s fort”? Braden/Braydon forest (Wilts)? Swindon? Liddington?
Dumbarton (Alt Clut)?
Bardon Hill (Leicester)?
Buxton?
Basildon?
Badminton?
Clarence?
Great victory of Arthur on St David’s day 540/640? Field of Leeks?
Siege Perilous?
Wandlebury?
Brumby (Lincs)? Baumber (Lincs)?
Bedivere?
Bledud/Bledudo (ancient king in HRB)?
vadum?
Thanet (Vortimer)?
Snowdon?
Bodmin?
Abingdon/Abbandune/Vincent?
Bowden?
Mynydd Baeddan?
Danmonia/Devon? Llongborth?
St Michael’s Mt (Gargano)?
St Alban (St Alban’s / Verulam)?
Bereford/Hereford?
Synod of Victory 569?
Bethan/Liethali? Cadwallon Lawhir vs Serigi Wyddel & the Gwyddyl at Cerrig y Gwyddyl in Mon/Anglesey (443-517)?
Baithene son of Aelle? Bieda/Beda (Portsmouth, ASC 501)? Bedca/Bedeca/Baduca (Essex)? Beda (Lindsey)? Caedbaed (Lindsey)? Benendict Biscop Baducing?
St Aaron (city of the leon / Caerleon)?
St Mary on the Rock (Fife)?
Bleiddan Sant the celebrated Lupus?
Ben/Pendragon?
Baeldaeg/Balder?
Silbury Hill?
bad?
Adwen/Advent (Children of Brychan)?
The Mount/Montem (Eliseg)?
Salinae/Droitwich/Wrekin/Hwicce (Reno)?
Staffordshire Hoard?
Sutton Hoo (Wood)?
Ituna/Eden (Solway)? Bdora/Bodotria (Firth of Forth)?
White Shield?
eclipse before calends Martii 538?*
St Martin’s Hwiterne long before 560?*
Bodgu?
Bishop Baithanus 640 (Bede)?
St Bathan? St Bothan? St Baithan? St Baithen? St Baiton? St Baothin?
Badenoch (Scotland)?
Badden (Argyll)?
Vindolanda/Bardon Mill (Penines, Northumbria)?
Braddan (Isle of Man)?
Dun Baeddan Ireland)?
44 yrs of Columba (ASC 560)?*
bodianne 430? bodiende 604? baedon/baedan (443 ASCa, ASCe)? cwaedon (ASCe introduction)?

References/sources consulted:
7 servants of the porter
8 labours of Tureinn/Turenn
9 men of Luthor/Liber
12 Monasteries list
children of Brychan
24 Kings & 33 Cities document
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (3 cities, 4 cities)
Annales Cambriae / Welsh Annals
Arcus / theelf / Graham Aspin
Graham Anderson ‘Arthur in Antiquity’
Antonine Itinerary
Asser
Geoffrey Ashe
Arthurnet
Adam Ardrey
Arthurian Infopedia
Abingdon ASC
Arthur of Bradley (ballad)
ASNOC
Alpin Luke
Bayeux tapsetry
British Edda by LA Waddell
Boron
V Sean Bambrough
ByT
Book of Kells
Bodleian library
BBC
A Breeze
Burghal Hidage
Baigent, Lincoln & Leigh
Black Book of Carmarthen
Sheila Brynjulfson
Breton Lais
‘Beorna’
Damo Bullen
Cambro-Briton (24 kings, 33 cities)
Chronicle of Mt St Michel
Colchester caledo inscription
Chronicle of St Werburgh(‘s)
Collingwood
Culhwch & Olwen
Caesar
Coligny Calendar
Caratacus Stone
Winston S Churchill
Camden
Cotton ASC?
Bill Cooper After the Flood
Caedmon
Castleden
Circle of Logres
Cornish (“Arthur is not Dead”)
Bernard Cornwell
Canu Helyedd
DEB by Gildas (tyrants)
Dream of Rhonabwy
Descent of the Mem of the North
Doomsday Book
Dumville
Ethelwerd
Encyclopedia Britannica
Ecclesiastical History by Bede (bishops)
Evans’ ‘Arthurian Campaign’ (12 battles, 4 battles)
Charles Gunther Evans
‘Excalibur’ movie
Excalibur inscription
Grey’s/Gray’s Bard poem
Faerie Queene by Spencer
Florus
Professor Field(s)
Keith Fitzpatrick Matthews
Gallic chronicle(s)
Legend of St Goeznovius
Galgano …?
Getica of Jordanes
Gooderich
Gerald Cambrensis “of Wales”
Alan Garner ‘Moon of Gomrath’
Giles
Malcom Godwin
Peter Graham
Gunn
“Thomas Green”
Chris Gwin
Adrian C Grant
Kamlesh Gaumata/Gautama
The History of Gruffydd ap Cynan
Jacquetta Hawkes
Herman Hoeh Compendium of History
Holinshed
Historum
Historia Britonnum by Nennius/Mark (33 cities, 12 battles, 13 wonders, 9 emperors)
HRG/DGB of Geoffrey of Monmouth (3 several battles, peers, 11 consuls, Prophecy of Merlin, high kings, 6 provinces/islands)
Edwin Hustwit
Caleb Howells / Calebxy
Hanes Taliesin (…)
Henry of Huntingdon
Red Book of Hergest
Harleian Genealogies (sons of Cunedda, men of the north)
Karen Han
Ranulf Higden
Stephen Holden
Hoxne Hoard
August/Dan Hunt
Higham
History Files
Historia Francorum of Gregory of Tours
Alan Hassel
Ingram
Irish Historia Britonnum
Kenneth Jackson
Kentish Royal Legend
Simon Keegan
King Arthur’s grave inscription Glastonbury
Lindisfarne Gospels
Local Tradition
Little Geste of Robin Hood
Layamon’s Brut
Loomis
Liber Floridus of Omer
Lancelot-Grail
CS Lewis
Modena Archivolt
Morted Arthur by Malory
Mabinogoin
Morris
Linda Malcor
MacCarthy & O’Croinin
Mildenhall hoard
Monty Python
Ammianus Marcellinus
Myvyrian Archaiology
Leon Mintz
Notita Dignitatum
Nothgyth Quest
Old English Chronicles (provinces/tribes, high kings)
O’Toole
Pa Gur
Pears Cyclopedia
Matthew Paris
Peutinger map
Pa Halgan
Ptolemy (islands)
Pillar of Eliseg (yrs, acres)
Dane Pestano
Prophecy of Berchan
Procopius
Pastscape
Polyolbion by Drayton
Prophecy of Merlin (HRB/DGB)
Polydore Vergil
Peteroborough ASC
Ravenna cosmography
Frank Reno
Richard of Cirencester (cities, itinerary, islands)
Rochester Camelot Project
Romances
Sidonius Apollinarus
Stephen de Bourbon
Saint’s Lives (7 saints, 10 sons of Glywys, 3 solemities, relics)
Stanzas of the Graves
Staffordshire Hoard
Sutton Hoo ship burial
Sayles
Snyder
‘Shakespeare & the Welsh’
Sencus
‘Sidney’
Judy Shoaf
Skene
Taliesin (Gwallag, Urien, …)
Annals of Tigernach
Tyslio
Chretien de Troyes
Tintagel/Artognou Stone inscription
Tacitus
‘Tristan’
‘Tristan & Yseut’
Tennyson
Todd
Tribal Hidage
Vindolanda tablets
Vatican Library
Victoria County History
Voteporis inscription
Vulgate Cycle
Vortigern Studies
Historia Britonnum VR
Wroxeter Stone
William of Malmesbury
Welsh Annals / Annales Cambriae
Wilson & Blacket
Welsh Triads (3 frivilous battles)
Mortimer Wheeler
Wace
Roger of Wendover
Wynn
Michael Wood
Winchester Round Table
Wikipedia (sites, characters)
Wonders of Britain (HRB/DGB)
Y Gododdin by Aneirin
‘Y Gogynfeirdd’ / ‘In Praise of Owen Gwynedd’ by Cynddelw Brydydd Mawr.

Archaeological artefacts/finds considered:
Crown found in Essex or East Anglia
Coppergate Helmet
Cuerdale hoard
Hoxne hoard
Lakenheath sword
Mildenhall hoard
Snape ship/boat
“Shropshire Stargate”?
Staffordshire Hoard
Sutton Hoo ship burial
Wroxeter stone
Witham Sword.

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Author: Jesse Powell